الاحتفاء بذكرى 11 يناير لحظة برور بجليل الأعمال الكفاحية التي سطّرها المغاربة (حوار)


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الاحتفاء بذكرى 11 يناير لحظة برور بجليل الأعمال الكفاحية التي سطّرها المغاربة (حوار)

أجرى موقع « مراكش7 » حوارا مع الأستاذ عدنان بنصالح الباحث في التاريخ المغربي حول ذكرى 11يناير التي تؤرخ لحدث تقديم وثيقة المطالبة بالاستقلال، لإبراز سياقها المقاوم ومركزيتها في مسيرة التحرر الوطني وطرد الاحتلال الفرنسي، فكان الحوار التالي:

س: حدِّثنا عن السياق التاريخي لتقديم وثيقة المطالبة بالاستقلال؟

نحتفي اليوم بالذكرى 78 لحَدَث تقديم وثيقة المطالبة بالاستقلال، مفتخرين بحصيلة الأجداد، ومتطلِّعين إلى مواصلة النضال الوطني والبناء والعطاء في صفوف الأحفاد. وإنّ الاحتفاء بهذه الذكرى لهي لَمسة وفاء ولحظة برور بجليل الأعمال الكفاحية التي سطّرها المغاربة من 1912 إلى نهاية الحماية.

إنّ بيان يوم الخميس 11 يناير 1944 وُلِد من رحم سياقات وطنية ودولية، استثمرها رجال الحركة الوطنية المغربية بذكاء، فتقدّموا خُطوة باتجاه فكّ الارتباط بنظام الحماية الذي صار نظاما استغلاليا استبداديا لا يمتّ بصلة لروح بنود المعاهدة التي وُقِّعت في مارس 1912. وقد حَكمت ظرفية صدور الميثاق الأطلسي وانعقاد مؤتمر أنفا _ بما يُشبِه تدويل القضية المغربية _، وانتصارات الجنود المغاربة ضمن طوابير جيوش الحلفاء في الحرب العالمية الأولى. وداخليا؛ تحسُّن طبيعة العلاقة والتنسيق بين الوطنيين والملك، ونُضج العمل السياسي المغربي الذي استوْعَب أنّ اللحظة آنت للانتقال من خطاب المطالبة بالإصلاحات إلى خطاب المطالبة بالاستقلال.

س: أيّ أثَر خلَّفته وثيقة المطالبة بالاستقلال في مسار حركة المقاومة المغربية وعلى الوجود الاستعماري؟

لقد أقامت الحركة الوطنية بحَدَث تقديم عريضة الاستقلال صِلة الوصل بعهْد النضال المشترَك في شقه المسلَّح مع انتفاضات قبائل زَيان وثورة الهيبة وجهاد قبائل السراغنة وتادلة والشياظمة وبني عمير وغيرها، وحركة الأمير محمد بن عبد الكريم الخطابي، وجدّدت في المغاربة روح الكفاح _ السياسي والميداني _، إذ سُرعان ما سنرى ردَّ فعل عنيف من لدُن سلطات الحماية الفرنسية، كشن حملة اعتقالات واسعة في صفوف قادة الحركة الوطنية والشخصيات الحرّة، ونفي العلماء الوطنيين، قابلته الجماهير الشعبية بالخروج إلى الشوارع والانتفاض في أكثر من مدينة، فتشكّلت بذلك « الحاضنة الشعبية » لعريضة المطالبة بالاستقلال، تلتها « الحاضنة الفدائية » بإطلاق عمليات فدائية مسلّحة في المدن، وتنشيط خلايا المقاومة السرية، وفَضْح سياسات الاستعمار في الصُّحف والجرائد الوطنية والدولية. ومن جهة أخرى، تصاعدت وتيرة العنف ضد المقاومين، ففقدنا شُهداء مدنيين ومُقاومين، فصعّدت الحركة الوطنية من خلال تنسيق أعمالها واتصالاتها مع السلطان محمد الخامس، الذي بدوره مارس التصعيد ضد الإقامة العامة، وسافر إلى طنجة مُلقيا بها خطابا تاريخيا، فصار إذّاكَ غي عين الحماية الفرنسية « ملِك الوطنيين » لا ملك المغاربة، الأمر الذي اعتبرته نقطة إيجابية في تفعيل قرار النّفي، الذي تَمَّ في 20 غشت 1953، بما يُفيد تَمَدُّد آثار وثيقة المطالبة بالاستقلال في الزمن، من 1944 إلى 1955.

س: تعددت الوثائق أو العرائض المغربية التي تصبُّ في نفس الاتجاه، لماذا نُسِيت بينما خُلِّدت وثيقة 11 يناير؟

هذا سؤال وجيه وفي صميم الانتقال من الواقعة التاريخية إلى الحَدث الوطني ذي الصبغة التاريخية الخالدة، وما يُحيط بذلك من مُلابسات وأسرار وتدابير. لقد تجاوزت عريضة المطالبة بالاستقلال كونها واقعة حصَلت بتاريخ 11 يناير من لدن مجموعة من أعضاء حزب الاستقلال _ حديث التأسيس آنذاك _ وشخصيات حُرّة؛ إلى حدث تاريخي يُثير شهية الباحث وأسئلة المؤرخ واستفسار المواطِن، كسؤالكم « لماذا خُلّدت وثيقة الاستقلال ليوم 11 يناير بينما تُنُوسِيت الأخرى؟ ».

أستحضر هنا كتابا مُفيداً للمؤرخ والإعلامي الراحل محمد العربي المساري عنوانه « ثقوب في الذاكرة؛ أربعُ وثائق وطنية »، صدر عن جامعة محمد الخامس بالرباط، في طبعةٍ أولى 2013، لفت انتباهنا إلى سياقات وظُروف صياغة أربعة وثائق أخرى طالبت بالاستقلال، ومُلابسات خُمول ذِكرها وتخليدها رسميا وشعبيا، بله وحتى حِزبيا. وتحتفظ لنا الذاكرة الوطنية بأربَع وَثائق وطنية من الأهمية بمكان وهي (وثيقة الجبهة القومية الوطنية المغربية بالشمال ليوم 14 فبراير 1943 [بين حِزبَيْ الوحدة القومية والإصلاح الوطني]، ميثاق لجنة تحرير المغرب العربي 1947، مذكِّرة 23 شتنبر 1947 [لحزب الشورى والاستقلال]، مشروع دستور حزب الإصلاح الوطني في 1 ماي 1954)، إلا أنّ ما اشتهر منها وذاع صيته وخُلّد ذِكره؛ بيان 11 يناير 1944، المُصاغ بخط مغربي جميل، من إبداع المقاوم الأستاذ عثمان جوريو رحمه الله، المطالِب بأربعة نقاط واضحة، ومقصد مُعبَّر عنه بشكل قطعي لا تردّد فيه.

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